I have a low-recoil Knoxx BreachersGrip™ on my "Kentucky Carry" Mossberg 500 Cruiser J.I.C. with an 18.5" barrel. In range practice, I deliberately fire many series of six shots in five seconds or less, all 20'-25' to the silhouette, and I have absolutely NO discomfort or wrist pain, thanks to the Knoxx BreachersGrip. (The Federal Tactical LE132 reduced recoil 00 buckshot works for me, way better than economy Royal RIO full power 00 buckshot.)
Anyone that can legally own a shotgun can affordably equip a suitable short-barreled $200-$300 Mossberg or Remington with a $75 Knoxx BreachersGrip™ and proper sights, and then learn to repeatedly fire his pistol-gripped shotgun painlessly and accurately to about ten yards. This proposal runs counter to current popular belief. But seeing is believing.
Some people might like a better way to shoot a pistol grip only - PGO shotgun or want one for a heavy artillery truck or car gun. With practice a stocked shotgun can effectively be fired below the line-of-sight at chest level. For more information go to
Pistol Grip Only - PGO Shotgun Technique. I specifically recommend that stocked shotguns are best for HD. If anyone would like to practice an effective way to shoot a PGO shotgun, they can practice with a stocked shotgun with the stock tucked under the arm.
I think that installing a tritium front sight that can be seen in the dark is the first priority when modifying a shotgun for HD.
My "Kentucky Carry" shotgun is a non-choked, smoothbore, modified Mossberg 500 Cruiser J.I.C. and I have it for outdoor HD and as a truck or car shotgun. For indoor HD, I prefer my pistols. I keep my "Kentucky Carry" 500 loaded with
3" Remington Premier® Copper Solid™ Sabot Slugs, backed up with a shell belt of both Federal Tactical low recoil "00" buckshot (LE13200B) and Brenneke K.O. slugs (60 yards plus accuracy). For "Kentucky Carry" I hang my low-recoil PGO shotgun at my right side under my right arm from a single-point sling around my neck, and I control it with my right hand. The sling can be transitioned to hang the shotgun from the chest or the back and to allow a sidearm to be drawn. I will post a picture of it after I add a King Armory KA-1212 muzzle brake/flash suppressor, and then parkerize and Molykote it at AZEX in Mesa, Arizona.
The comfortable and ergonomic Knoxx BreachersGrip™ cuts recoil in half, makes firing painless and easy, and encourages practice. P-R-A-C-T-I-C-E builds one's confidence that he can successfully use his shotgun to defend his home. A BreachersGrip™ equipped shotgun is so effective in reducing painful recoil that it can be shot effectively one-handed. The Remington Law Enforcement Breacher Shotgun has the Knoxx BreachersGrip™ installed on the 870 MCS receiver with 10” barrel, moreover, Remington will install the Knoxx BreachersGrip™ or SpecOps™ stock on ANY model with a 10 gun minimum order.
Remington says, "While we have all seen several attempts at recoil reducing stocks, the Knoxx SpecOps is the only one worthy enough to be endorsed and put on Remington’s Legendary 870 Police Shotgun. The recoil reduction is truly amazing." Retail $99.95 but only $74.95 at L.A. PoliceGear.
WATCH THIS KNOXX VIDEO! WATCH THIS KNOXX VIDEO! WATCH THIS KNOXX VIDEO! WATCH THIS KNOXX VIDEO! WATCH THIS KNOXX VIDEO!
My Knoxx BreachersGrip™ came unlubricated and stiff. Before I bolted it to my Mossberg 500 J.I.C., I thoroughly lubricated and manually worked the track mechanism with Break-Free® CLP (Cleaner Lubricant Preservative). You can stand both the Knoxx BreachersGrip™ and the Knoxx SpecOps™ stocks upright, lubricate the track mechanism with plenty of Breakfree® CLP or whatever, and with your palm protected with an old piece of towel, work the track mechanism for a couple of minutes as if you were breaking in a new pistol slide. (Except that the track mechanism is
powerfully strong! I think that Blackhawk could spare some white lithium grease for them. You can get to FAQ's, videos, etc. for any of the three Knoxx products from Blackhawk.
Cavalry Arms Oversized Safety
I have replaced the original Mossberg tang safety on my Knoxx BreachersGrip-equipped Mossberg 500 Cruiser J.I.C. with a Cavalry Arms Oversized Safety. The beauty of the Cavalry Arms SST-590 Black Rugged Oversized Aluminum Safety is that it provides a work-around for accessing the tang safety on pistol-gripped Mossbergs.
True, it would be great if Mossberg also offered an optional trigger guard-style safety for pistol-gripped Mossbergs, but that it not going to happen. I find the Cavalry Arms Oversized Safety easy to access on my 500, maybe even easier than on the SST-590 stock that Cavalry Arms designed it for.
The Cavalry Arms Oversized Safety is easiest to manipulate with the right index finger by a right-handed shooter (or with the left index finger by a left-handed shooter) when it is used with a Knoxx BreachersGrip™, a Knoxx SpecOps™ stock, etc. Using this Cavalry Arms safety does require a minor shift of the hand on the pistol grip, but not a radical hand movement as when manipulating the original Mossberg safety.
I consider that this Cavalry Arms statement is correct, that their Safety is "for fast, ambidextrous on/off engagement with thumb pressure, or index finger as preferred on [Mossberg shot]guns equipped with a pistol grip." It is not just appropriate for the SST-590 stock alone, and just a simple bump cannot take it off safety. It takes a deliberate forefinger push or pull to move it. I even lubed it, and I trust it.
My gunsmith had a black Allen head machine screw that he shortened to install the Cavalry Arms safety, which came without a screw. This 6/32x5/16" screw could be ordered from Bolt Depot Product number 7907, Socket head (a.k.a. Allen head) machine screw, Alloy steel, Black oil (plain) finish. Diameter: 6-32, Product number 7907, length 5/16", $0.09/each, $6.02/100. One could put a nut on a more commonly stocked 6/32x3/8" black socket head machine screw and barely grind it back to 5/16" and remove the nut and buff off any burrs.
I will post a picture of the Cavalry Arms safety and the Knoxx BreachersGrip™ both installed on my Mossberg 500 Cruiser J.I.C. soon. The Cavalry Arms safety might be a bit more awkward when it is installed with the Cavalry Arms SST-590 stock that is pictured below.
TruGlo Tritium/Fiber Optic Front Sight
I think that installing a tritium front sight that can be seen in the dark is the first priority when modifying a shotgun for HD.
I have immediate day or night sighting with a glow-in-the-dark TruGlo Tactical Front Sight Shotgun Steel Blue Tritium/Fiber Optic Green light pipe which is concealed and not visible to the target, $79.99. These sights were first manufactured in 2008, so the tritium is expected to last 12 years, until 2020. I had the barrel drilled and tapped for two #6-48 screws by my gunsmith. "This sight is bright and visible regardless of the lighting conditions. Fiber optics capture and amplify any available light, while a tritium vial provides illumination during complete darkness. Steel construction. Manufacturer #: TG131SG."
Midway (but $10 cheaper elsewhere).
LaserLyte Tri-Rail Mount
I have installed a LaserLyte Tri-Rail Mount Shotgun Matte, $24.95 at
Midway. Slide it on carefully to avoid scratching the magazine tube. Hand-tighten it sensibly with the supplied Allen wrench to avoid stripping out the threads. (It is incorrectly installed in the above photograph, because it should not be tightened on the barrel lug. It should only be tightened on the magazine tube.)
LaserMax Uni-Max Red Laser
Although I use the TruGlo Tritium/Green Light Pipe sight for my primary or emergency sighting, I strongly recommend having a laser on PGO shotguns (and S&W J-frames!), lined up PARALLEL to a laser boresighter, because of the inherent loss of accuracy when compared to a shotgun with a stock and sights. For precision or for night use, and if time allows when under attack, I have a
LaserMax LMS-UNI Uni-Max Rail Mount Red Laser with Integral Rail on the right side rail of the LaserLyte Tri-Rail Mount (where my thumb on the forend will not slip and bump it). I am also going to put on a LaserMax Uni-Green laser to help me when I am at the range in daylight to get my aim to where it needs to be. (Green lasers in defensive situations should only be used when behind decent cover, because a BG can see the "greenbeam" from the side, day or night.) My left forefinger can flick the on/off switch without removing my left hand from the forend. "The Uni-Max is a laser inside a Picatinny rail. Tactical lights easily fit on top or bottom. A super-reliable, super-handy, little laser."
Mr. Larry Vickers says, "At night and in conditions of limited visibility lasers are nothing short of awesome; they make accurate shooting easier than with any other sighting system currently on the market. Don’t get me wrong, night sights and white light have their place but a visible laser at night rules. PERIOD. Remember, lasers are meant to augment the standard sights, not replace them. They are simply another tool in the tool box." A dependable laser such as a LaserMax can help one to shoot around a corner without overly exposing himself to incoming rounds, if he can shoot the shotgun without shouldering the stock. A dependable laser can help one to make a difficult head shot or other precision shots, or to wing a BG hiding behind too little cover.
The shooting method as I described above is very good for rapid fire at cardboard targets, but what if the targets are moving BGs or if I am on the ground? My (as yet personally untested) guess is that this shooting method will work just fine at moving targets, based on Mr. Cirillo's "tank turret" below line-of-sight alternative sighting method. Our range does not allow crossfire at targets nor moving exercises, so I will have to practice a wide variety of exercises with my PGO shotgun and the C.A.R. system on our family farm. But hey, I can still shoot by bead at eye-level with my PGO shotgun just like I was doing all along before I learned this chest-level method, or use the laser. Repeated eye-level shooting with a PGO shotgun is really slow compared to the chest-level method, but it is always an option.
KA-1212 muzzle brake/flash suppressor
I have a
Mesa Tactical Receiver Mount Picatinny Rail (Standard Profile, #90770) for Mossberg 500, Aluminum Matte Black, $44.99, on my pre-drilled and tapped receiver.
King Armory will soon permanently install the KA-1212 muzzle brake/ flash suppressor so that the total barrel length will remain 18.5", and then parkerize and Molykote the barrel and magazine tube. The KA-1212 controls muzzle rise well, but it is also perhaps the best shotgun flash suppressor. At night a BG just might return fire where he saw a big fireball and hit me, even though the BG cannot see my silhouette to aim at me. Better safe than sorry means, to me, get the KA-1212 for HD shotguns.
"The KA-1212 reduces recoil and tightens patterns by dumping pressure from behind the shot wad before it achieves free flight. KA's proven '6/45' port arrangement offers maximum performance in a small package and keeps the sights clear of gases/heat mirage so you don't lose sight of the target, day or night. The KA-1212 is a 'must have' for civilian and LE applications where retaining low-light vision and the ability to fire rapidly on target are of key importance. Although this unit will impress you with its daytime performance, the first time you use it in low-light/ dark environments, you'll appreciate the extra R&D work that King Armory put into this product."
I am particularly impressed with this King Armory KA-1212 Flash Suppression Video.
Single Point Slings
I have a non-stretchable black single-point padded sling made by Browning, where I first attached the swivel at one end of the sling to the swivel at the other end of the sling, which is attached to the swivel stud at the far rear of the low-recoil Knoxx BreachersGrip™. I will probably get a "bungie cord" single point sling because they have a little flex to get over a winter coat or a tac vest. I am considering either a
BDS Tactical CQB Single Point Sling and the optional mash clip, or a 100690101 Spec-Ops LONESTAR RIG Single Point Sling, or a Gear Sector ASP Generation 2 one-point sling, or a Spector Gear High Speed Transition (HST) Sling, or a BLACKHAWK!® Storm Single Point Sling 70GS12BK.
Two-point slings are without any question superior for hunting shotguns and full-length combat/tactical shotguns. Moreover, we can observe that several single-point slings are popular right now for both short-barreled, short LOP shotguns and pistol-gripped breacher/etc. shotguns in military and LE use. After transitioning a two-point sling, the weapon is still controlled yet both hands are free. Users of these single-point combat/tactical slings have a disadvantage because they have to dedicate the support hand to control the weapon if they want to free their strong hand. If both hands must be free for other tasks when a single-point sling is used, Blackhawk offers
71WH00BK BlackHawk Universal Slung Weapon Holder.
I also put on a Mossberg forend strap.
Federal Law Enforcement Tactical Low-Recoil 9 pel #00 Bk (copper plated), FC wad @ 1145 FPS. Part # LE132
Federal Premium Vital-Shok Ammunition 12 Gauge 2-3/4" Buffered 00 Copper Plated Buckshot 9 Pellets Flitecontrol Wad Box of 5 @ 1325 FPS, Part # PFC154 (THESE CIVILIAN SHELLS ARE SIMILAR TO BUT HAVE MORE POWER AND MORE RECOIL THAN Federal Law Enforcement Tactical Low-Recoil 9 pel #00 Bk (copper plated), FC wad @ 1145 FPS. Part # LE132)
The Federal Tactical LE-132 low-recoil 00 buckshot with FliteControl is in high demand because so many police departments buy it. Federal PFC-154 usually costs more than than LE-132. (A low-recoil version that was labeled PFC-154 LR has not been manufactured since about 2006.) Low-recoil ammo like LE-132 lets you re-acquire your target more quickly for second and third shots. We are responsible for every buckshot "flyer," and we should forget about using a wider pattern to substitute for poor aiming or to hit two badguys with one shot. The very tight-patterning LE-132 is the ticket. We want most or all of the 9 pellets to hit our target hard and very close to each other. LE-132 has a longer range than non-FliteControl buckshot loads, up to maybe 40 yards.
My personal favorites are the
3" Remington Premier® Copper Solid™ Sabot Slugs. They are .68 caliber solid copper hollow-point 2X-expansion bullets. About 4 years ago I decided that the 3" Remington Copper Solid™ sabots would expand and make really big holes so I bought a few boxes. I called Remington and I asked if the accuracy of these sabots would be unacceptable from a smoothbore barrel at short distances. The Remington representative asked me what distance did I have in mind, and I answered, About 50 feet. There was a pause and he said, No, there won't be any problem with accuracy from a smoothbore at that distance! (Of course, these are long-range hunting sabots and they can cross through a big boar diagonally and pop a chunk out of him when it exits. So I figured that they will go through leather, denim, winter coats, cars...) In testing, 60% (3 of 5) of the Copper Solid™ Sabot Slugs did NOT keyhole even at 50 yards from a smoothbore barrel. So at 50'-75' or less from a smoothbore barrel, the 3" Copper Solid™ Sabot Slugs have acceptable accuracy, the hollow-point will strike first as intended, and they will expand more than any other slug!
Everyone has to examine his own HD situation, and everyone can benefit by "hardening his perimeter." After that, I rely on my handguns for indoor HD. I consider my shotguns to be my last recourse for indoor HD, and I am not running for my shotguns. But if I have to go outside with a shotgun, I won't be worrying about over-penetration of indoor walls with 00 buckshot. My ready load is 3" Remington Premier® Copper Solid™ Sabot Slugs, backed up with a shellbelt of Federal LE-132 FliteControl 00 buckshot, accurate to 35 yards, and Brenneke K.O. slugs, accurate to 60 yards. Police departments are often not authorized to use slugs, so they are grateful for a little more range with Federal LE-132 FliteControl ammo. I do not have that constraint. I will be outdoors, and if I am responsible for every buckshot "flyer," then I had better not miss, and I will have better stopping power with a slug. While the majority of posters on
StoppingPower.net use 00 buckshot for HD, there have been several logical posts by those who now ready load slugs, including the pre-fragmented PolyWad Quik-Shock slugs. Even the Site Administrator, a retired lifetime Detroit and Federal LEO, does not consider this to be a bad idea. "This site has been created to serve as the definitive source for bullet stopping power, self defense, concealed carry, and firearms performance information."
My judgment is that if I am ever in a conflict with BGs firing at me from over 50 yards away, there has been a complete breakdown of law and order, and I need rifle ammunition. When law and order is restored, I will still have to justify my decisions. And those difficult decisions must be made on-the-fly, knowing in advance that a prosecutor might later try to persuade a jury that I lied when I said that I felt that I had been lethally threatened by a BG situated where the 50 yard target is in the photograph below.
"Federal Premium Ammunition has reinvented and redefined smoothbore slug technology and effectiveness. The
Federal TruBall® Rifled Slug system is the most consistent group-to-group smoothbore slug on the market. The TruBall® Rifled Slug locks a simple plastic ball between the wad and slug to center the slug in the barrel, promoting clean separation of components after muzzle exit. Federal's Tactical® TruBall® Rifled Slug provides an amazing accuracy improvement at ranges up to 75 yards for smoothbore shotguns. See for yourself with 2" groups at 50-yards. Upgrade your smoothbore without changing barrels." (See also Federal slugs.)
Federal Tactical® TruBall® Rifled Slug LEB127 LRS 1300 fps muzzle velocity --- 1642 ft-lbs muzzle energy (same Low Recoil load as Federal Vital-Shok® TruBall® Rifled Slug PB127 LRS)
Federal Tactical® TruBall® Rifled Slug LEB127 RS 1600 fps muzzle velocity --- 2487 ft-lbs muzzle energy (same Full Power load as Federal Vital-Shok® TruBall® Rifled Slug PB127 RS)
BRENNEKE K.O. SLUGS ARE GREAT FOR AFFORDABLE TARGET PRACTICE!!! (12 GA, 2¾”, 1 oz., SL-122KO, rifled or smoothbore barrels, Range: up to 60 yards) is one of the least expensive slugs on the market. It has superb accuracy: Five-shot groups under 2” at 50 yards. It has 1600 fps muzzle velocity and 2491 ft-lbs muzzle energy. It is an improved Foster type slug with a flat trajectory, excellent penetration, and good knockdown power."
Brenneke Tactical Home Defense Slug (12 GA, 2¾”, 1 oz., SL-122THD, rifled or smoothbore barrels, Range: up to 35 yards) is very suitable for police work/self defense. Fast, accurate follow-up shots are possible due to the low-recoil loading. With 1378 fps muzzle velocity and 1854 ft-lbs muzzle energy, it has good knock down power and yet reduced risk of over-penetration in urban use."
Brenneke Special Forces Short Magnum (12 GA, 2¾”, 1.25 oz., SL-122SFM, rifled or smoothbore barrels, Range: up to 100 yards) has unequaled penetration and stopping power at medium ranges. In independent testing, the SFSM penetrated a full 34.9" of FBI-spec ballistic gelatin. The nearest competitor could manage only 26", others as little as 11". Quite simply, it’s the most powerful 2¾" load on the market…and will function equally well in smoothbore and rifled shotguns. The Special Forces Short Magnum’s massive frontal area, exceptionally hard alloys and distinctive Brenneke weightforward design will penetrate many vehicles, doors, even some walls, putting an end to the threat right here, right now. Its special red coating reduces barrel fouling and cleaning. It has 1476 fps muzzle velocity and 2538 ft-lbs muzzle energy. It has superb accuracy: Five-shot groups under 2” at 50 yards."
To change to chest-level shooting from my previous eye-level shooting, I removed my EOTech 551 from my PGO Mossberg Cruiser and put it back on my Kel-Tec PLR-16 5.56mm pistol. I did not really like the EOTech and my thumb coming so close to my teeth when I fired my springed Knoxx BreachersGrip-equipped Cruiser at eye level. It takes time to both line up sights on a PGO shotgun at eye-level and to not knock your teeth out from shooting too fast. I did not like how that caution for the sake of my teeth really slowed my firing down. That is why I researched and learned that 60%-70% of PGO shotgun users fire from chest level, and so the EOTech had to come off. But the great increase to speed of firing convinced me that learning to fire by lower-than-eye-level sighting is worth the effort.
EOTech XPS3-2 below is even better than my EOTech 551. The EOTech XPS3-2 corrects an old battery/disappearing reticle problem sometimes experienced from recoil under extreme endurance testing. It uses only 2.75" of rail space, is night vision compatible, and runs 500-600 hours on one CR123 battery (3X the battery life of my N cell model), and of course it lets you know hours before it is going to run out of power.
Be sure to read these
EOTech testimonials by LEO's and our combat soldiers. I liked this one: "We found it easy to advance at a threat and shoot with both eyes open. It was as though you did not really have to aim, even though you were. For an overall performance score, we would give it an A. This type of system could greatly enhance the marginal shooter's ability." -- Sgt. Greg Schuman, Boulder County Sheriff's Office.
"The EOTech HOLOgraphic Weapon Sight has a 90' (28m) field of view at 100 yards, at a 4" eye relief. The greater field of view of the EOTech HWS (nearly 4 times as wide as the Aimpoint Comp M2) means improved situational awareness and faster threat identification. The EOTech HWS employs a true Heads-Up Display that eliminates blind spots, constricted vision, or the tunnel vision associated with tube sights. All user controls are flush to the HWS's streamline housing with no protruding knobs, battery compartments or mounting rings blocking vision of the target area. True 2 eyes open shooting is realized. Instant threat identification is achieved by maximizing the operator's peripheral vision and ultimately gaining greater control of the engagement zone.
"In holography, all the information required to reconstruct the reticle image is recorded everywhere in the Heads-Up Display window. If the window is obstructed by mud, snow, frost, rain, etc., the HWS remains fully operational, with point of aim/impact being maintained. Even in such extreme cases where the laminated window is shattered, the HWS is fully functional! As long as the operator can see through any portion of the window, the entire reticle pattern is visible on target...the operator can still engage with confidence.
"The top 3 advantages of an EOTech for CQB are 1) Speed , Speed, and more Speed – the HWS is simply the fastest sight in the market today; 2) the maintenance of the operator’s peripheral vision with the tubeless Heads Up Display and 2 eyes open shooting; 3) the ease of use to achieve incredible accuracy, which translates into the operator’s greater confidence in his shooting ability."
I hang my pistol-gripped, low-recoil shotgun at my right side under my right arm from a single-point sling around my neck, and I control it with my right hand. I no longer fire my low-recoil PGO shotgun by what I had named the "Kentucky Carry" method. When I used to fire my PGO shotgun at eye-level, I was duplicating the way that I had set up my Kel-Tec PLR-16, but the results were not satisfactory. Pushing my stockless, moderate-recoil Kel-Tec PLR-16 .223 caliber/5.56mm 30-round pistol forward firmly away from a single-point, inflexible sling allows stable and accurate repeated fire. But I did not like the EOTech and my thumb coming so close to my teeth when I fired my springed Knoxx BreachersGrip-equipped Cruiser at eye level. It takes time to both line up sights on a PGO shotgun at eye-level and to not knock your teeth out from shooting too fast. But to see what I mistakenly had in mind for my PGO shotgun, please pay attention to how the single-point sling is used to stabilize this Kel-Tec PLR-16. (This is not my video, or my PLR-16, or my brother.)
I can fire my PGO Kel-Tec PLR-16 .223/5.56 mm 30-round pistol with one hand, sighting by an EOTech, and crudely hit a 50-yard target every single time, but if I push it firmly forward against the inflexible single-point sling, I am accurate to 100 yards. And I have 20/400 vision. (At least I am not blind.)
I bought my 9" barreled semi-automatic PLR (Pistol Long Range)-16 because it is concealable, portable, non-NFA, and relatively powerful. A concealed carry license will not help one to move undetected through a bad neighborhood, etc. with an AR, whereas that is feasible with a 20" long PLR-16. Different circumstances can validate different tools. I can use either the really compact factory 10-round magazine or any 30-round AR magazines. It is only 20" long with the factory muzzle break, which nearly eliminates muzzle rise. I have shot mainly Lake City 5.56x45mm M855 SS109 62 grain "green tip" military surplus ammunition, and also a few boxes of the Ultra-Max remanufactured .223 ammunition. The Kel-Tec PLR-16 is very dependable with 5.56mm ammunition, but .223 ammunition can occasionally FTF or FTE. This is normal because .223 ammunition is designed for .223 chambers, and .223 ammunition can be fired from 5.56 mm chambers, but not 100% reliably. And the PLR-16 is loud. The PLR-16 does not have the good sight radius of an AR, but it is a real beast with an EOTech. There are many YouTube videos of PLR-16's with EOTechs up top.
Please check out the super informative
Kel-Tec Owners Group PLR-16 forum
"The PLR-16 is a gas operated, semi-automatic pistol chambered in 5.56 mm NATO caliber. It was designed as and is intended as a long-range target and hunting pistol. The PLR-16 has a conventional gas piston operation and utilizes the proven M-16 breech locking system. The rear sight is adjustable for windage. The front sight is of M-16 type. An integrated MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail will accept a multitude of standard accessories. The muzzle end of the barrel is threaded 1/2” -28 to accept standard attachments such as a muzzle brake. Except for the barrel, bolt, sights, and mechanism, the PLR-16 pistol is made entirely of high-impact glass fiber reinforced polymer. The accessories available for the PLR-16 include an under-picatinny forend, scope rings, dynamic deflecting operating handle, single point sling, and a muzzle brake specifically design for the 9.2" barrel of the PLR-16." --